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傳統文化:清明節的英文知識

2020-04-07  zhangsans...

Qingming Festival
(Tomb-sweeping Day)

April 4th or 5th of the Gregorian calendar

公歷4月4日或4月5日

one of the Chinese Twenty-four Solar Terms

中國二十四節氣之一

From that date temperatures begin to rise and rainfall increases

從這一天起,氣溫開始升高,降雨量開始增多

the crucial time for plowing and sowing in the spring 

春耕春播的重要時節

Origin  故事起源

這是一個關于一位忠孝義士的故事

 It is said that the Qingming Festival was originally held to commemorate Jie Zitui, a loyal man who lived during the Spring and Autumn Period. Jie cut a piece of meat from his own leg in order to save his hungry lord who was forced to flee from his own country. 

Later, when the lord regained his position, he forgot about Jie Zitui’s sacrifice. However, after being reminded, he felt ashamed and decided to reward the loyal man, but Jie had hidden in a mountain with his mother. In order to find Jie, the lord ordered that the mountain be set on fire. 

Unfortunately, Jie was found dead with his mother. In order to commemorate the day of his death, the lord declared the date to be Hanshi (Cold Food) Festival — the day that only cold food can be eaten.

A year later, when the lord went to the mountain to commemorate Jie’s death, he found the burned willows had revived, so he gave instructions that the day after Hanshi Festival was to be Qingming Festival. Eventually, the two festivals were combined into one.

翻譯:

相傳清明節最初是為了紀念春秋時期(公元前770-476年)的一位忠臣,介子推。晉國公子重耳被迫逃亡齊國。因咽不下野菜,介子推就從自己的腿上切下一塊肉做成湯,說是麻雀湯讓重耳吃下。重耳在秦國的幫助下,回到了晉國,平定了叛亂并當上國君,這就是歷史上有名的晉文公。跟隨他出逃的人都得到了封賞,而晉文公唯獨忘了介子推。晉文公意識到自己的錯誤時,介子推和母親已經隱居在山上,并拒絕出山。為了找到介子推,晉文公又中了奸臣計策下令放火燒山,想逼出孝子介子推。火滅時卻發現介子推和母親一起被燒死。為了紀念他,晉文公下令忌日百姓不得焚火煮飯,只吃寒食,這一天就是寒食節。

第二年忌日次日,晉文公上山祭祀介子推,發現介子推死前抱著的柳樹又復活了起來,于是他下令寒食節的次日為清明節。后來,這兩個節日合而為一。

Traditional Customs
Tomb Sweeping   掃墓

cleaning the tomb

清掃墳墓

paying respect to the dead person with offerings (including a variety of food, fruits, drinks and flowers)

用祭品來紀念逝者

Spring Outing

Not only is it a day for commemorating the dead, but it is also a time for people to enjoy themselves.

清明時分,不但懷念逝者,也正是享受生活的時節。

Flying Kites

Flying kites is also closely associated with the Qingming Festival. 

放風箏也是和清明節密切聯系的一項活動。

Spring outings not only add joy to life but also promote a healthy mind and body.

清明節外出踏青等活動不僅給生活增添了歡樂,也促進了身心的健康。

清明節相關英文詞匯

Cold Food Festival    寒食節

Day of sacrifice    祭祀節日

Condolence    哀悼之情

Hell note/Joss paper    紙錢

Mourning ceremony    哀悼儀式

Offer sacrifices to ancestors    祭祖/上供

Funeral supplies/products    殯葬用品

Funeral services    殯葬服務業

Mortician    殯儀業者

Burn incense    焚香

Tomb-sweeping    掃墓

Tomb sweeper    掃墓的人

Monument       紀念碑

Online funeral     網上葬禮

Online tribute    網上悼念

Cremation urn    骨灰盒

Inhumation    土葬

Cremation    火葬

Sea burial    海葬

Tree burial    樹葬

Celestial burial    天葬

Boat-coffin burial    船棺葬

National mourning    全國哀悼

National mourning day    全國哀悼日

Willow branches inserted on each gate  門旁插柳

Filial piety 孝順;孝心

詩歌翻譯

我們人耳熟能詳的一首關于清明的詩就是:

清  明

          ——杜牧

清明時節雨紛紛

路上行人欲斷魂

借問酒家何處有

牧童遙指杏花村

這首詩的英文翻譯版本也有很多:


1.許淵沖譯

A drizzling rain falls like tears on the Mourning Day

The mourner's heart is going to break on his way. 

Where can a wineshop be found to drown his sad hours?

A cowherd points to a cot 'mid apricot flowers.

2.吳偉雄譯

It drizzles thick and fast on the Mourning Day, 

The mourner travels with his heart lost in dismay.  

When asked for a wineshop to kill his gloomy time, 

 A cowboy points at Almond Hamlet far away.

3.萬昌盛、王僴中譯  

The ceaseless drizzle drips all the dismal day,

So broken-hearted fares the traveler on the way.

When asked where could be found at avern bower,

Acow boy points to yonder village of the apricot flower.

4.楊憲益、戴乃迭譯

It drizzles endless during the rainy season in spring,

Travelers along the road look gloomy and miserable.

When I ask a shepherd boy where I can find a tavern,

He points at a distant hamlet nestling amidst apricot blossoms.

5.吳鈞陶譯  

It drizzles thick and fast on the Pure Brightness Day,

I travel with my heart lost in dismay.

'Is there a public house somewhere, cowboy?'

He points at Apricot Village faraway.

6.蔡廷干譯 

The rain falls thick and fast on All Souls' Day,

The men and women sadly move along the way.

They ask where wineshops can be found or where to rest ----

And there the herdboy's fingers Almond-Town suggest.

7.孫大雨譯 

Upon theClear-and-Bright Feast of spring, the rain drizzleth down in spray.

Pedestrians on countryside ways, in gloom are pinning away. 
When asked 'Where a tavern fair for rest, is hereabouts to befound', 
The shepherd boy the Apricot Bloom Vill, doth point to afar and say.

來源 | 微學英語

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